The Journal of Experimental Life Science <p>Welcome to The Journal of Experimental Life Science (JELS) (print ISSN <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2087-2852</a>; e - ISSN <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2338-1655</a>), a scientific journal published by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Postgraduate School, Universitas Brawijaya</a>. Colleagues can access JELS articles on published scientific papers in <em>review, short reports,</em> and <em>articles</em> in <em>Life Sciences</em> especially biology, biotechnology, nanobiology, molecular biology, botany, microbiology, genetics, neuroscience, pharmacology, toxicology, and <em>Applied Life Science</em> including fermentation technology, food science, immunotherapy, proteomics and other fields related to life matter.</p> <p>JELS is published 3 (three) times a year (Number 1: February; Number 2: June; Number 3: October). Submissions are open all year-round. Before submitting, please make sure that the manuscript is in the focus and scope of JELS, written in ENGLISH, and follows our author guidelines and manuscript template. All submitted articles shall be original, have never been published elsewhere, and not under consideration for other publications.</p> en-US Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> (Wenny Bekti Sunarharum) (Jehan Ramdani Haryati) Sun, 30 Jun 2024 13:00:41 +0000 OJS 60 Optimization of Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) Annealing Temperatures for the Detection of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in Wistar Rat (Rattus novergicus) Liver <p>Free radicals exposure causes oxidative stress in the human body and leads to various diseases, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, diabetes, and aging. The endogenous enzymatic antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) acts directly to reduce free radicals, and thus, its levels in tissue organs represent an important biomarker for oxidative stress in humans. One of the most reliable methods for detecting SOD is real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Still, the annealing temperatures and their results can vary widely depending on the samples. This study aims to optimize the annealing temperature of RT-PCR to detect SOD levels in liver tissue from Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Total RNA was extracted from the liver tissue of one healthy Wistar rat using a cell lysis reagent. Purified RNA was reverse-transcribed into cDNA. The RT-PCR annealing temperature was optimized for detecting the expression of SOD with GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) as a reference housekeeping gene. The optimum RT-PCR annealing temperature for detecting SOD was 50°C, and GAPDH was 60°C. The optimization of annealing temperatures in RT-PCR is essential to obtain single peak readouts (higher specificity) and lowest Ct values possible (higher sensitivity).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Annealing temperature, Free radicals, RT-PCR, Superoxide dismutase, Wistar rat liver.</p> Erryana Martati, Pramudhia Khansa Kirana, Tunjung Mahatmanto Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Microplastics in The Outer Ambon Bay, Mollucas <p>Marine plastic debris that enters the sea can be fragmented by physical and chemical factors, then float in the water column or accumulate in sediments, which have the potential to be ingested by marine biota, causing digestive system disorders, fecundity, eating capacity, reproduction, and death. This study aimed to identify the accumulation of microplastics in water and sediments in Outer Ambon Bay using a purposive sampling method and descriptive analysis for data related to microplastics' type, color, and size, as well as follow-up tests of the least significant difference. The results show that the waters of Outer Ambon Bay have been polluted by microplastics. The number of microplastic particles found in water samples at three different depths (0, 50, and 100 cm) was 201 particles L<sup>-1</sup>, and in sediment samples, it was 325 particles g<sup>-1</sup>. It is supported by the fact that the type of fiber has a thin shape and size and can float on the surface of the water and by the existence of beaches where there are fishing activities, boat ports, rivers, and densely populated areas, as well as sandy and muddy sediments that can trap more microplastics during the tidal period. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent the waste problem in the waters of Ambon Bay.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Identification, Marine Pollution, Microplastics, Outer Ambon Bay. </p> Vanela Chatrin Lekatompessy, Agung Pramana Warih Marhendra, Nia Kurniawan Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Purple Roselle Fortified Yogurt Supplementation Prevents Dioxin-Induced Oxidative Testicular Impairment in Rats <p>Dioxins are highly toxic and hurt multiple organs and systems, including the reproductive organs. This study determined the supplementation of purple roselle (<em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em> var. altissima) extract into yogurt to prevent testicular deterioration induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The fortification of purple roselle extract into yogurt (RY) was used as a supplement because bioactive components are known to be efficacious in preventing cell damage. Five groups of male Wistar rats were group as follows: 1) negative control (C), 2) TCDD (T), 3) TCDD and 0.5% RY (P<sub>1</sub>), 4) TCDD and 1% RY (P<sub>2</sub>), 5) TCDD and 1.5% RY (P<sub>3</sub>). All treatments were carried out orally for 12 days. Testicular Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and histopathological changes were described quantitatively by one-way ANOVA. The study's results showed that treatment groups P<sub>1</sub> (0.5% RY) and P<sub>2</sub> (1% RY) had significantly (P&lt;0,05) lower MDA levels than the T group, while group P<sub>3</sub> had no significant decrease in MDA level. It proved that supplementation of purple roselle yogurt reduced the formation of MDA in testicular tissue. Histopathology changes show that all groups exposed to TCDD have depleted spermatogenic, Sertoli, and Leydig cells compared to the C group. Suggests that dioxin exposure can have adverse effects on male reproductive organs. This research concludes that supplementing yogurt fortified with purple roselle extract can prevent increased testicular MDA levels. The decrease in testicular cells due to TCDD toxicity was inevitable. However, antioxidant activity from roselle yogurt supplementation can prevent further damage in rat testicular cells.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Histopathology, MDA, Purple Roselle, Testis, TCDD, Yogurt.</p> Ani Setianingrum, Shintya Nindhyasari, Herlina Pratiwi, Ajeng Erika Prihastuti Haskito, Aldila Noviatri Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Ethyl Methane Sulfonate on Bulbil Explant Growth and In Vitro Shoot Formation in Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) <p>Porang is one of the plant commodities with high economic value due to its high glucomannan content in the tubers. Currently, the global demand for porang tubers continues to rise, but domestic production has not yet met this demand due to the limited supply of superior porang seeds. Mutation breeding with Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS) can be one of the alternative methods for developing superior porang to enhance tuber production. This study aims to determine the response of porang bulbil explants to EMS mutagen treatment in vitro. The research used a Randomized Complete Block Design consisting of six EMS concentrations (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.1%). The research stages included pre-culture of bulbil explants on MS + BAP 3 mg.L<sup>-1</sup> + NAA 0.1 mg.L<sup>-1</sup> for two weeks in dark conditions and EMS mutagen treatment on bulbil cultures for four weeks. The results showed that adding EMS mutagen to the medium for four weeks caused the explants browning, inhibited shoots forming, and decreased the fresh weight and growth index. The higher the EMS concentration in the medium, the increased percentage of browning explants and reduced explant growth and shoot formation. The EMS concentration (≥0.06%) inhibited explant growth and shoot formation. While EMS concentration (0.02-0.04%) increased explant growth, shoot formation was not significantly different from control, even though there was an increase. Up to four weeks of culture, there was no explant death, so LD<sub>50</sub> is not yet known. The LD<sub>50</sub> EMS can also be calculated by explant browning and shoot proliferation. Based on explant browning and shoot proliferation, the LD50 EMS in porang bulbil explants was 0.07% and 0.09%. The EMS concentration and length of culture age need to be increased to obtain an LD<sub>50</sub> survival rate.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Amorphophallus muelleri</em> Blume, bulbil, EMS, <em>In Vitro</em> mutagenesis.</p> Vera Febriyanti, Budi Waluyo, Nunung Harijati, Chaireni Martasari, Wahyu Widoretno Copyright (c) 2024 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000