The Journal of Experimental Life Science <p>Welcome to The Journal of Experimental Life Science (JELS) (print ISSN <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2087-2852</a>; e - ISSN <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2338-1655</a>), a scientific journal published by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Postgraduate School, Universitas Brawijaya</a>. Colleagues can access JELS articles on published scientific papers in <em>review, short reports,</em> and <em>articles</em> in <em>Life Sciences</em> especially biology, biotechnology, nanobiology, molecular biology, botany, microbiology, genetics, neuroscience, pharmacology, toxicology, and <em>Applied Life Science</em> including fermentation technology, food science, immunotherapy, proteomics and other fields related to life matter.</p> <p>JELS is published 3 (three) times a year (Number 1: February; Number 2: June; Number 3: October). Submissions are open all year-round. Before submitting, please make sure that the manuscript is in the focus and scope of JELS, written in ENGLISH, and follows our author guidelines and manuscript template. All submitted articles shall be original, have never been published elsewhere, and not under consideration for other publications.</p> en-US Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> (Wenny Bekti Sunarharum) (Jehan Ramdani Haryati) Mon, 26 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Relationship of Circulating Endothelial Cells, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, and Endothelial Dysfunction after High-Intensity Exercise: Role of Nitric Oxide <p>Endothelial dysfunction after high-intensity exercise occurs through various mechanisms characterized by decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. This study aims to determine the relationship between circulating endothelial cells (CEC), endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), and endothelial dysfunction after high-intensity exercise through an experiment using male Wistar strain rats. This study uses the randomized control group posttest-only design. A total of 32 male Wistar rats aged 20-22 weeks with a body weight of 140±20 g were taken randomly and divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=16), the control group, was given low-intensity exercise. Meanwhile, group 2 (n=16), named the treatment group, was given high-intensity exercise. The groups were run on a special treadmill where light-intensity exercise is done at a speed of 5-8 meters.minute<sup>-1</sup> for 30 minutes and high intensity at 25-30 meters.minute<sup>-1</sup> for 30 minutes. The treatment was performed at 5 to 10 pm, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Blood and aortic tissue samples were taken after the mice were rested for 12 hours after the last exercise. ELISA and Flow cytometry measured NO, CEC, and EPC levels. This research showed that CEC and EPC expression and high-intensity exercise have a positive relationship, yet not significant to the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction (NO), with a value of Sig. (0.111); <em>p</em> &gt; 0.05, and the relationship value is r = 0.414 (R²= 17.15%). In conclusion, endothelial dysfunction after high-intensity exercise is not associated with CEC and EPC expression, which indicates endothelial damage. </p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> exercise, circulating endothelial cells, endothelial dysfunction, endothelial progenitor cells, nitric oxide</p> Rias Gesang Kinanti, Djanggan Sargowo, Edi Widjajanto, Muhaimin Rifa’i Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 26 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Piper betle L. Leaves Extract Potentially Reduce the Nitric Oxide Production on LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Cell Lines <p>Chronic inflammation can lead to several diseases that represent the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Conventional treatment of inflammation can carry some risks. Therefore, research on herbal medicine that are suspected of having anti-inflammatory effects, such as <em>Piper betle</em> L., is important. This study aims to investigate the effect of <em>P. betle</em> L. extract on nitric oxide as a pro-inflammatory mediator. The dried leaves of <em>P. betle</em> L. were extracted by ethanol. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with LPS and <em>P. betle</em> L. extract (PBE). Nitric oxide was measured by the Griess method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2–Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total flavonoids and phenolic content were also identified by aluminium chloride and Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric assay, respectively. This study demonstrated that the PBE has excellent NO suppression activity with the IC<sub>50</sub> 56.22±16.41 μg.mL<sup>-1</sup>, without cytotoxicity. PBE also has DPPH inhibitory concentration IC<sub>50</sub> values of 279.67±11.36 ppm. Interestingly, PBE has a flavonoid content of 50.17±3.14 mg QE.g<sup>-1</sup> and phenolic content of 128.92±1.2 mg GAE.g<sup>-1</sup>. These compounds are thought to be responsible for its anti-inflammatory as well as antioxidant. This study proved that <em>P. betle</em> L. leaves extract could be used as a candidate for anti-inflammatory drugs. Nevertheless, further research about the biological activity mechanism and their bioactive compounds' purification is still required.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Inflammation, lipopolysaccharide, Macrophage, Nitric Oxide, <em>Piper betle</em><em>.</em> </p> Dinia Rizqi Dwijayanti, Sapti Puspitarini, Nashi Widodo Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Alpinia Purpurata K. Schum Rhizome Extract Supplementation in Tris-Egg Yolk Extender on the Quality of Cryopreserved Bali Bull Sperm <p>This study aimed to analyze the effect of <em>Alpinia purpurata</em> K. Schum rhizome extract (APRE) supplementation into tris-egg yolk extender on the sperm quality of Bali bull after freezing. This study used experimental method with a completely randomized design (CRD), consisting of five treatments, denoted as P<sub>0</sub> (semen diluted using 100% Tris-Egg Yolk (TEY)), P<sub>1</sub> (semen diluted using 98% TEY and 2% APRE), P<sub>2</sub> (semen diluted using 96% TEY extender + 4% APRE), P<sub>3</sub> (semen diluted using 94% TEY + 6% APRE), and P<sub>4</sub> (semen diluted using 92% TEY + 8% APRE). Semen quality was assessed both before and after freezing, using several indicators such as motility, viability, and abnormality of sperm. The antioxidant activity of RGE was determined using the DPPH (1,1-diphenils-2-picrylhydrazils) technique. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with further analysis using post hoc tests in the SPSS 25 program. The results showed that APRE has strong antioxidant activity, with an IC<sub>50</sub> value 38.004 μg.mL<sup>-1</sup>. Meanwhile, this research has shown that the addition of 6% RGE in the tris-Tris-egg yolk extender was able to maintain sperm quality before and after freezing.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Alpinia purpurata</em> K. Schum, sperm quality, tris-egg yolk.</p> Firlina Laila Putri, Sri Rahayu, Agung Pramana Warih Marhendra Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 11 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activities of Rice Berry Extracts for Body Cream Products <p>The utilization of natural extracts as an ingredient in cosmetic products becomes a better choice for customers. Rice berry has been defined as a potential source of anti-free radical properties which is able to be formulated in cosmetic products. Therefore, the objectives of this study are 1) to investigate an antioxidant by ABTS and ABTS assays, total antioxidant compounds by phenolic and total flavonoids assays, and cell viability to fibroblast NIH3T3 (IC80) of ethanol and aqueous extracts of rice berry by MTT test, 2) to evaluate cream stability of each formulates adding different concentrations of rice berry extracts. The results showed that both extraction solvents did not show cytotoxicity to fibroblast NIH3T3 (IC80). However, the ethanol rice berry extracts exhibited a higher total phenolic compound, total flavonoid content, and anthocyanin content than the water rice berry extracts. The physical properties of each cream formulated, including rice berry extracts, showed no unacceptable properties. It can conclude that rice berry extracts have the potential to be a natural ingredient in cosmetic products after studies of the antioxidant properties, antioxidant compounds, cytotoxicity to normal fibroblast, and physical properties after being added to cosmetic cream.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antioxidant, cream stability, flavonoids, normal fibroblasts, rice berry.</p> Tiparat Tikapunya, Kanlaya Jumpatong , Chaipat Lapinee, Pahol Sansomchai Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological Variation of Asian Small Lizards genus Tytthoscincus Linkem, Diesmos & Brown (Squamata : Scincidae) in Indonesia <p>Morphological variations in species with a relatively broad distribution, including the genus <em>Tytthosincus</em>, were likely a result of island isolation. This research was conducted to map the morphological variations of the genus <em>Tytthoscincus</em> in Indonesia. A total of 32 specimens of the Tytthoscincus scientific collection in the Zoologicum Bogoriense Museum (MZB) - National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN) and identified as <em>T. temmincki</em>, <em>T. textus</em>, and <em>T. parvus</em> have been examined and data collection which includes six morphometric characters and 12 meristic characters. Morphometric data were analyzed in univariate and multivariate. Univariate analysis was carried out by the Kruskal-Wallis test, while multivariate analysis was done with the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) test. The results showed morphology in <em>T. temmincki</em> and <em>T. textus</em>, namely the number of loreal scales and tympanum diameter. Both <em>T. temmincki</em> and <em>T. textus</em> consist of two groups, but the morphological variation in <em>T. temmincki</em> and <em>T. textus</em> in this study has yet to provide certainty as a different species. However, one was <em>T. textus</em> Type 2, isolated from other species on Jampea Island, Sulawesi. Further research was needed to clarify the taxonomic status<span style="text-decoration: line-through;"> </span>of these variations by increasing the number of adequate samples supported by the molecular analysis approach.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>meristic, morphometric, species, <em>Tytthoscincus</em>, variation.</p> Richo Firmansyah, Awal Riyanto, Nia Kurniawan Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 03 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Shelf Life and Quality Stability Determination of Drying Shredded Dumbo Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the stability of the quality and shelf life of dried shredded African catfish (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em>). The method used in this study was quantitative research using an experimental method using a completely randomized design with three different drying treatments. The stability of the drying quality of African catfish shredded (<em>Clarias Gariepinus</em>) was the color of African catfish shredded with varying methods of drying, giving panelist scores ranging from 2.36 to 4.4; organoleptic value of African catfish floss ranged from 2.88 to 4.16; panelists' assessment of the texture of African catfish shredded ranged from 2.12 - 4.56; the taste of African catfish floss ranges from 2.08 to 4.44. Shredded African catfish with different drying durations that were most in demand by panelists was sample A3 shredded African catfish steamed and dried for 4 minutes in a spinner machine with a color score of 4.4, aroma 4.16, texture 4.56, and taste 4.44. The results of measurements using distribution turnover explained that the shelf life of shredded catfish could last up to 7 months and was reduced to 6 months to anticipate product damage earlier.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> quality, shelf life, shredded dumbo catfish.</p> Matheus Nugroho, Eli Susanti, Sugiono Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Microbial Abundances in Biofilms and Water in Hypersaline Environments with Different NaCl Levels <p>Biofilm is the dominant habitat for aquatic microbes that can grow in various aquatic conditions, including environments with extreme conditions. One of the extreme conditions found in aquatic ecosystems is a hypersaline environment. As part of aquatic biological resources, microbes can also live in this environment. However, although it is the predominant habitat of microbes, biofilms in hypersaline environments have yet to be widely explored. Understanding biofilms in hypersaline environments, especially salt ponds, will increase knowledge about microbial biofilms. The knowledge can open opportunities for using microbes as aquatic resources, such as aquaculture or environmental biotechnology. This study analyzed microbial abundance in biofilms and water in hypersaline environments. The water is from salt ponds on the South Coast of Malang Regency, Indonesia, with different salinity levels (2%, 25%, and 40%). Microbial abundance was analyzed using the culture method using several culture media (Modified Nutrient Agar, Modified Total Plate Agar, Mannitol Salt Agar, and Casein Medium Agar). The substrate for biofilm growth is HDPE, often used as a bottom coating for salt ponds and shrimp ponds. Moreover, this study also analyzed water quality parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids, temperature) during the biofilms' forming process. The results of this study indicate that the abundance of good microbes that grow in the biofilm or the water around the biofilm is strongly influenced by the type of media used for culturing. The main composition of the most influential media is peptone. The density of microbes in the biofilm is hundreds to thousands of times higher than that in the surrounding water. The results of this study also show that the presence of microbes in both water and biofilm affects the water quality properties in hypersaline environments.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>aquatic ecosystem, biofilm, hypersaline, microbial ecology.</p> Ilham Misbakudin Al Zamzami, Yuni Kilawati, Zulkisam Pramudia, Yogita Ayu Dwi Susanti, Andi Kurniawan Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 01 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Numerical Simulation and Sensitivity Analysis of COVID-19 Transmission Involves Virus in the Environment <p>This paper is aimed to develop a new COVID-19 mathematical model involving viruses in the environment. In this mathematical model, the human population is divided into five subpopulations: susceptible, exposed, infected, hospitalized, and cured individuals. In addition, the model also contains the virus population in the environment. Infection in the model occurs due to interactions between susceptible individual subpopulations and infected individuals and hospitalizations, as well as the spread of the virus in the environment. Based on the results of dynamic analysis, this model has two equilibrium points, the disease-free and endemic equilibrium points. The disease-free equilibrium point always exists, and both equilibrium points are locally asymptotically stable if they meet the Routh-Hurwitz criteria. Model sensitivity analysis was carried out on model parameters that affect the basic reproduction number with the most sensitive parameters are the natural death rate, the recruitment rate, the transmission rate of the virus in the environment, the virus clearance rate, and the rate of wearing PPE (Personal Protective Equipment), as well as the parameter that does not affect the basic reproduction number that is the rate of leaving the recovered population. Numerical simulations performed show results in accordance with the analysis, also from the simulations can be concluded that the increase (or decrease) of the transmission rate of the virus in an environment that has a higher sensitivity index has more significant influences on the basic reproduction number and the number of infected population than the transmission rate of hospitalized individuals.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Basic Reproduction Number, Dynamics Analysis, Epidemic Models of COVID-19, Local Stability Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis.</p> Maratus Sholihatul Azizah, Trisilowati, Nur Shofianah Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 14 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Releasing Domestic Dogs on the Spread of Rabies Disease and Its Prevention <p>The government's program to achieve rabies-free status by 2030 is an initiative to accelerate the eradication of rabies cases in Indonesia. Rabies is a highly contagious disease with a 100% fatality rate, and dogs are the main carriers of the virus. The government's efforts to minimize rabies cases include vaccination of susceptible animals, eliminating rabid dogs, and implementing dog population management (MPA). Field observations indicate that the practice of releasing domestic dogs allowing them to roam freely, has led to an increase in rabies cases. Using mathematical modeling, this husbandry system's impact can be simulated. Based on the model analysis, it is determined that a maximum of 15% of domestic dogs should be allowed to roam freely. If this threshold is exceeded, it becomes necessary to ensure a minimum of 20% vaccination coverage and eliminate at least 1% of rabid dogs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Dogs, Rabies Disease, Releasing Domestic Dogs.</p> Afit Ahmad Fitri, Marsudi Marsudi, Trisilowati Trisilowati Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000